Can a known donor renounce his legal obligations as a parent?

Yes, in VA, if insemination is done through a fertility clinic, the sperm donor will not be considered a legal parent.

What if a known donor attempts to enforce his parental rights when the original intent was to be a sperm donor only?

This may be possible.  In a recent VA Supreme Court decision, the court found that a man was a legal parent when his unmarried girlfriend was inseminated with his sperm via a fertility clinic.  However, in this particular case, there was a written agreement between the couple that the man would be considered a legal father. While this agreement does not comply with the language of the statute (i.e., that all sperm donors will not be legal fathers), the court nonetheless found that the agreement demonstrated intent of the couple that the sperm donor would be a legal parent, and therefore the court found him to be a legal parent.

Does the state allow for second-parent adoption (i.e., for same-sex couples)?


Does the state allow for multiple-parent families (when the child has more than two adults in a parenting role)?

Unknown; this has not yet been addressed.

Does the state recognize “de-facto” or “psychological” parentage (of an “acting” parent without a biological connection) or a similar concept?

Unknown; this has not yet been addressed.