Can a known donor renounce his legal obligations as a parent?

Yes. The PA Supreme Court has ruled that a sperm donor in a private arrangement is not liable for child support where (1) the biological mother promises the donor that he will not be liable for support in exchange for donating his sperm, (2) he waives his parental rights and (3) the parties act in accordance with this agreement.  The PA Supreme Court rejected prior court holdings that a biological parent cannot waive support for their child and that such private agreements were unenforceable.

What if a known donor attempts to enforce his parental rights when the original intent was to be a sperm donor only?

Unclear, but a known donor may be able to enforce parental rights. A PA Superior Court has ruled that a known sperm donor was liable for support of his two children after it was shown that he participated in the childrens’ life and often provided financial assistance historically.

Does the state allow for second-parent adoption (i.e., for same-sex couples)?


Does the state allow for multiple-parent families (when the child has more than two adults in a parenting role)?

At least one court has recognized multiple-parent families.

Does the state recognize “de-facto” or “psychological” parentage (of an “acting” parent without a biological connection) or a similar concept?