North Dakota

Can a known donor renounce his legal obligations as a parent?

Yes; ND law specifically states that a donor is not a parent of a child conceived by means of assisted reproduction.

What if a known donor attempts to enforce his parental rights when the original intent was to be a sperm donor only?

Unknown; this may be possible given the lack of statute or case law cutting off the rights of a sperm donor.

Does the state allow for second-parent adoption (i.e., for same-sex couples)?

There is anecdotal evidence that certain courts may permit second-parent adoption.

Does the state allow for multiple-parent families (when the child has more than two adults in a parenting role)?

Unknown; this issue has not yet been addressed.

Does the state recognize “de-facto” or “psychological” parentage (of an “acting” parent without a biological connection) or a similar concept?

Possibly; in 2010, the ND Supreme Court recognized a stepparent as a psychological parent entitled to reasonable visitation with their stepchild..